Obesity is soon turning out to be an epidemic in adults across the globe since the onset of the 21st century. An automated lifestyle combined with unhealthy eating habits and low physical activity is a major contributing factor to widespread obesity.
An individual with a Body Mass Index (BMI-Kg/m2) of 30 and above is considered obese. Severe and complex obesity has added the risk of certain health conditions like:
1. Type 2 diabetes
2. Hypertension
3. Arthritis
4. Sleep apnea
5. Heart diseases
6. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
7. Varicose veins
According to a recent study, more than 135 million individuals are affected by obesity in India.

Bariatric Surgery for Weight Loss
Bariatric surgery is a branch of surgery that deals with operating on the digestive system to help manage obesity in individuals. It involves the manipulation of the stomach and/or small intestine to help with weight loss.
This surgery leads to a weight loss of 25-35% of your body weight (usually at least 15 kg) after 1 year and sustained at 15-25% after 20 years. Bariatric surgery is generally advised for people who haven't lost weight after diet and exercise and have some serious health issues due to being overweight.
In a restrictive bariatric surgery, your surgeon restricts or reduces the size of your stomach or small intestine and slows down digestion.
A mixed bariatric surgery (restrictive/malabsorptive), limits the food intake and interferes with absorption of calories.

Eligibility for Bariatric Surgery
Bariatric surgery isn't recommended for everyone who's overweight. Only in cases where intensive lifestyle changes regarding diet and exercise haven't been successful and/or you're suffering from a serious health condition; your doctor may suggest bariatric surgery.
If you have a BMI of 40 or above - severe and complex obesity
If you have a BMI of more than 30 along with a severe weight-related health concern and the weight loss surgery will help you reduce the effects of that condition
Additionally, you must be willing to make permanent changes to your daily life and choose to live healthily.

Common Types of Bariatric Surgery
Deciding which type of bariatric surgery will suit you the best will depend on various factors. Surgeons often take into account your history, health condition and expectations before coming out with the best-suited plan.
Today, the goal of all surgical procedures is to be minimally invasive, meaning smaller incisions and speedy recovery. Let's learn about the types of bariatric surgery.
1) Gastric Bypass Surgery (Roux-en-Y)
This is the most commonly used procedure in bariatric surgery. In this, your surgeon disconnects the topmost part of the stomach and creates a pouch which is the size of a walnut. A part of the small intestine is then cut and attached to this pouch, thereby re-routing your gastro-intestinal (GI) tract. Every time you eat food, it directly enters the middle part of your small intestine.
Gastric bypass works by limiting the amount of food you can eat in a single sitting aiding in sustainable weight loss.

2) Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy (VSG)
This surgery is directly performed on the stomach in which 80 to 85% of it is removed, leaving a long, sleeve-like pouch connected to the intestine. The doctor joins the remaining stomach together using surgical staples.
It may also decrease your desire to eat by ensuring less production of the ghrelin- hormone that regulates your hunger. The risk of complications is lower in this surgery as compared to gastric bypass. Since there's no re-routing of the GI tract involved, it also requires a shorter hospital stay.

3) Gastric Banding
Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding (LAGB) involves your surgeon putting an instrument called a laparoscope through small incisions in the abdomen. The surgeon plants an adjustable band around the top part of your stomach to create a small pouch. It makes you feel full after eating a small amount of food.
Your doctor can adjust the opening of the band as per your food intake requirements. After the surgery, if the band causes problems or is not helping you lose weight, your surgeon may decide to remove it.

4) Duodenal Switch
It is a more sophisticated form of bariatric surgery which involves a mix of gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy. It is a two-part surgery wherein the first part includes cutting a portion of the stomach as in sleeve gastrectomy. In the second part, your surgeon redirects food to bypass most of your small intestine.
Though this surgery ensures greater weight loss, it has higher health risks involved. Hence, it is not an often preferred procedure. This surgery is also called biliopancreatic diversion with a duodenal switch.

Benefits of Bariatric Surgery
1. Leads to long-term survival benefit
2. Greatly reduces the risk of weight-related health problems
3. Improves overall quality of life

Risks and Complications of Bariatric Surgery
Like every major procedure, bariatric surgery may pose certain health risks which can include:
1. Bowel problems
2. Internal hernia
3. Infection
4. Malnutrition due to lower appetite
5. Acid reflux
6. Gastro-intestinal leakage

Recovering From Bariatric Surgery
Bariatric surgery recovery time will depend on the type of procedure performed and the individual complications. The less invasive a procedure, lesser is the recovery time. If there are complications during the surgery, it is likely for you to take time to recover.

However, you need to take care of your diet following bariatric surgery. Your doctor may advise you to have liquids initially for some days before going on to soft, digestible foods.
Depending on your case, it may take about two months for you to finally start having a regular diet—that too, with some restrictions. Reach out to CK Birla Hospital for further information on Bariatric surgery in Gurgaon.

To Conclude
Bariatric surgery is not the 'magic potion' to your obesity woes. It is important to make permanent daily changes like eating a balanced diet and getting regular exercise to ensure the long-term success of the surgical procedure.
Even though bariatric surgery can offer many benefits, any form of weight-loss surgery has the potential to cause serious risks and side effects. However, the benefits usually outweigh the risks of bariatric surgery but only for those who are consciously willing to make a change in their behavior and attitude towards healthy living.

Healthy habits equal a healthy life!

Author's Bio: 

Mahima, a Software Engineer by education turns to a content writer by profession, who specializes in health, beauty, and fitness.
She loves to write about fitness and beauty.