Cell therapy includes stem cell therapy and immune cell therapy of diseases such as tumors. In recent years, with the rapid development of life sciences and medicine, cell therapy has made significant progress in various fields such as inflammation, tissue regeneration, and anti-aging. Excitingly, a number of research breakthroughs have been made in medical treatments such as cancer treatment, immune regulation, and organ degeneration injury repair; and the specific molecular mechanisms of the corresponding diseases have been further explained, making significant contributions to human health and disease treatment. Although the development of cell therapy is now gaining its momentum, scientists still have a long way to go in the face of unresolved solid tumor treatment and relatively high T cell production costs.

What are the major research findings in the field of cell therapy research over the past 10 years? This paper presents a literature review of cell therapy research in 2010-2019.

In a study published in Nature in December 2010, scientists from the Children's Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, USA, used stem cells to induce functional human intestinal tissue. Researchers say they are using this for the first time. Human pluripotent stem cells in culture dishes induce the formation of three-dimensional structural tissues and cellular components very similar to human intestinal tissue. This research not only promotes the study of human intestinal development, function and disease, but also takes an important step further for intestinal tissue that produces cells for cell transplantation.

In a study published in the PNAS journal in 2011, researchers at the University of Wisconsin published their important achievements in the field of embryonic stem cell therapy research. In the article, the researchers demonstrated that neurons derived from embryonic stem cells can regulate host neural cell network behavior, which is of great importance for the development of novel cell therapies for Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, stroke and epilepsy.

In January 2012, researchers from the United States published in The Lancet magazine that they successfully treated two patients with different degenerative eye diseases using human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Initial research data indicate that hESC cell therapy is not only safe but also shows strong therapeutic efficacy. In a study published in the magazine Blood in August of the same year, scientists from China succeeded to reveal the important pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome and proposed allogeneic mesenchymal stem cell therapy might be a potential new therapeutic approach for patients with Sjögren's syndrome. Researchers point out that the immune regulation of mesenchymal stem cells plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Sjogren's syndrome, and stem cells therapy based on allogeneic mesenchymal may be expected to treat patients with Sjogren's syndrome in the future.

In a study published in the September 2012 issue of Hepatology, scientists at Wake Forest University found that stem cells in cord blood have the ability to migrate naturally into the small intestine, suggesting that such stem cells may have potential for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In October, Gupta et al. published their latest research in the journal Science Translational Medicine, in which the researchers confirmed in a clinical phase I trial that neural stem cells successfully implanted into the patient's brain appears to produce myelinated tissue. The results of the study indicate that neural stem cells are safe in the patient's brain one year later, and that the transplanted neural stem cells are capable of severe myelination. New myelin sheaths in patients with disease are expected to help treat a variety of neurological diseases. In a study published in the journal Science Translational Medicine in December, scientists from Italy discovered through a study of mouse models that correcting specific gene mutations in stem cells is promising to treat spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). This new therapy is expected to enter the clinic, and the future is of great significance not only for SMA diseases, but also for the treatment of similar neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS and other neuromuscular diseases.

Type I diabetes is caused by the loss of insulin beta cells in the pancreas, affecting more than 30 million people worldwide, although currently there are many therapies, but the average life expectancy of patients is generally reduced by 5 to 8 years. In 2013, published in a research report on the Developmental Cell, researchers from the Valrose Institute of Biology reprogrammed mouse ductal endothelial cells into insulin beta cells for the first time, which is expected to treat human diabetes in the future.

In a research report published in Immunity in January 2014, researchers at the University of Washington School of Medicine are expected to use immune cells to cure heart damage. The researchers confirmed in the article that there are two major immune cell populations in the heart. They all belong to macrophages, one that promotes heart healing, and the other that promotes inflammation and adversely affects long-term cardiac function.

In a February report published in Science Translational Medicine, scientists from the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center conducted clinical trials to genetically modify the patient's own immune cells or to cure 88% of acute leukemia patients. In the article, the researchers modified the patient's T cells and injected them into the patient. It was found that these modified T cells were able to recognize and destroy CD19-positive cancer cells and allow the patient to fully respond. In a study published in the JAMA magazine in April, Hsieh et al. developed a new blood stem cell transplantation technology that will help those patients with sickle cell anemia no longer need to take immunosuppressive drugs, improving the quality of life of patients. In a study published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation in September, scientists from the Southwest Medical Center found that rare stem cells are expected to treat male infertility. A rare stem cell found in the testicle produces a biomarker called PAX7 Chi, which may help produce new sperm cells and be the key to restore male fertility.

In the same month, researchers at Tsinghua University developed an injectable 3D microcellular habitat based on biocompatible, biodegradable gelatin micro-freezing gel, which can help achieve low-dose cell therapy for severe limb ischemia. In a study published in the PNAS journal in October, scientists from Peking University confirmed that rat neural stem cells can release dopamine after transplantation, helping to alleviate the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. This is of great significance for scientists in the future to use stem cell therapy to treat degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease.

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