Acne vulgaris is actually a chronic skin disease that may cause blockage and inflammation of pilosebaceous units. Acne can cause both inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions to affect the face, chest and back.

Some of the major causes of acne vulgaris are as follows:

  • follicular epidermal hyperproliferation
  • Increased production of sebum
  • Presence of commensal microorganism Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes)
  • Inflammation.

Additionally, In the pathophysiology of acne genetics is also a key factor.

Who gets acne vulgaris?

Almost everyone has to face the issue of acne but mostly it affects youngsters. It gets more severe during adulthood.

Signs and Symptoms

Acne vulgaris mostly occur because of noninflammatory, open or closed comedones and by means of inflammatory papules, pustules, and nodules. Typically the regions of skin containing the densest population of sebaceous follicles i.e face, upper chest and back are affected by acne vulgaris. Some signs of these vulgaris are the pain, tenderness, or erythema.

Systemic signs are not found in acne vulgaris. Acne vulgaris may result in acne conglobata, inflammatory nodulocystic acne and interconnected abscesses in severe cases. Acne conglobata is considered as severe but acne fulminans are worse than it with systemic signs such as fever, joint ache, and widespread malaise

Acne vulgaris may additionally have a psychological effect on any patient that does not depend on the severity of the disease.

Diagnosis of Acne Vulgaris

Following features are found in patients of acne vulgaris when examined through specialists:

  • Comedonal Acne: Presence of open and closed comedones however normally no inflammatory papules or nodules
  • Slight Acne: Presence of comedones and a few papulopustules
  • Mild to Moderate Acne: Presence of comedones, inflammatory papules, and pustules. It contains a greater no of lesions than milder acne.
  • Nodulocystic acne: Presence of comedones, inflammatory lesions, and huge nodules usually range in 5mm.

Laboratory Tests to Diagnose Acne Vulgaris

Clinical analysis is required to identify acne vulgaris. However, laboratory testing might be indicated in the following conditions:

  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): Consider PCOS in lady sufferers with oligomenorrhea, hirsutism and/or acanthosis nigricans. It must be examined in these kinds of patients with complete and free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone values, in addition to a lipid panel, glucose fee, and insulin level.
  • If it is not manageable with low potency antibiotics long-term antibiotic treatments will be required.

Topical Remedies for Acne Vulgaris.

Retinoids

Retinoids decrease microcomedones, comedones, and inflammatory lesions. Topical retinoids are comedolytic and anti-inflammatory. They prove to be helpful in normalizing follicular hyperproliferation and hyperkeratinization.

Topical retinoids must be applied as first-line therapy for comedonal and inflammatory acne This must be continued to stop occurrence of microcomedone formation.

Most effective topical retinoids for acne vulgaris are:

  • Adapalene  
  • Tazarotene
  • Tretinoin

These retinoids need to be applied on daily basis to ease dry pores and skin but if they cause any kind of irritation or redness they need to be applied less frequently.

Topical Antibiotics

Topical antibiotics are used against C acnes. In addition to this, they also contain anti-inflammatory properties.

Most effective topical antibiotics for acne vulgaris are:

  • Clindamycin
  • Erythromycin
  • Dapsone
Author's Bio: 

Cynthia is freelance writer, an author and content marketing specialist. When not working probably spending time with her family.